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Operation whereby the wine is separated from the solid matter which has settled at the bottom of the containers, either during fermentation or during the different phases of ageing.


Grape partially dehydrated by the sun and rich in sugars.


The development of aromas which are reminiscent of raisins in wines made with overly ripe grapes.


Aged wine obtained through oxidation that is sometimes speeded up by exposing the wine to the sun in large glass cylinders.


Combination of hues or degrees of a specific character of the wine. It can be applied to both colours and aromas.


Young, unfinished wine. Synonym: tierno.


Basic colour of red wines.

Red pepper

Primary aromatic component of certain varieties of grape such as red Cabernet Sauvignon.


Descriptive term applied to the aromas of a wine or to wine itself which has spent a long time isolated from contact with the air. Sometimes excessive reduction leads to unpleasant smells, which may or may not be eliminated by airing the wine.


The chemical reaction opposite to oxidation.


The term for blending a young wine with another, older wine.

Renewal spur

Piece of vine shoot left with a variable number of leaf buds after pruning.


Classification within Spanish wines that describes wines sold after a specific ageing period in wood or in bottle. In order to be classified as a reserva, a red wine must spend at least 36 months in a wooden cask or bottle, of which at least 12 months should be in oak casks. For whites and rosés, the ageing period is 24 months minimum, with at least 6 of them spent in oak casks.


Negative taste or smell found in aged wines due to the use of new or inappropriate woods. Also used for wine produced in containers made of pinewood, a widespread practice in Greece. There are examples in Spain, specifically in the northern part of the island of La Palma (Canary Isles).


Phase in the elaboration of sparkling wines using the traditional method, in which there is a second fermentation. It takes its name from the way the bottles are stacked, called en rima, i.e. one on top of the other horizontally, forming huge compact blocks.


Group of bottles arranged en rima.


Mature, fully-developed (grapes).


Optimum moment for the grape harvest. A distinction must be made between industrial ripeness or maturity, which is when the amount of sugar per unit of surface area is at its maximum, and aromatic ripeness, which refers to the greatest concentration of primary aromas in the grape and occurs 5 to 7 days before industrial ripeness.


Literally “oak,” but this term can appear upon a label, most often, of a Joven wine; it informs the buyer that the wine has spent at least a little time in barrel.


A full-bodied wine with a naturally high alcohol content.


The Spanish term for the act of refreshing an Andalusian generoso wine in its criadera, or oak butt, where it is ageing, with another younger wine.


Rosé or pink wine made from red grapes fermented with little or no time on their color-laden skins; hence the wine is pink or rosé in color.


Type of wine made from red grapes or a mixture of red and white, where fermentation takes place in the absence of the grape skins, allowing the wines to achieve only a certain degree of colouring.


The smell of roses or rose petals is a primary aroma of some white or rosé wines. The smell of withered roses is another aroma present in certain wines.


Wine whose component elements are in harmony, with no specific element standing out. Synonyms: equilibrado, sin aristas.


Shade of red similar to the precious stone and characteristic of aged red wines.

Running the scales

A process in the ageing of some fortified wines whereby the youngest wine is transferred from a butt on the upper rows (criadera) to another in a lower row until it finally reaches the oldest wine at floor level (solera).

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