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Any tree of the genus Quercus (Quercus ruber). It is a large tree that grows slowly, and is typically found in northern Atlantic climes. Wood from this species, especially American oak and the French limousin, when correctly prepared, possesses excellent properties for the construction of wine casks. In winemaking, the word also refers to the aroma and taste this wood confers on wine stored in containers made from it. Sometimes these sensations can be present in wine to an excessive degree when the wood is new (not soaked in wine) and/or because of a prolonged presence in the cask.


Negative characteristic of a wine, the source of which is difficult to identify.


Wine with a viscous appearance similar to the texture of oil.


The name give to a wine with an oily (greasy) appearance due either to a disease or because it contains essential oils resulting from the crushing of grape pips during extraction of the must.


A type of wine which is characteristic of the Condado de Huelva, Jerez and Montilla-Moriles Denominations of Origin. It is amber or mahogany in colour, very aromatic, smooth and robust to taste, and velvety. It is aged using the criaderas and soleras system.


Slightly cloudy wine.


A wine with intense colour or cloudiness which does not allow light to pass through it.


Used to describe a wine with lack of colour or a wine that does not taste well-balanced.


A very average wine without any attributes. Coarse.

organoleptic analysis

Wine-tasting. Analysis involving the senses.


The Spanish form of grappa or marc, a distillate made from grape pomace.


Spanish term for grape skins or husks. This solid residue of the grape can be unfermented (fresh orujos) or already fermented (fermented orujos). Orujo spirit or aguardiente, known generically in Spain as orujo, of which the most well-known is made in Galicia, comes from the distillation of fermented orujos.

Out of condition

Wine which during its storage or ageing period has surpassed its ideal degree of preservation, and has entered a phase in which it begins to lose its attributes.


The chemical reaction between different components of a wine and oxygen in the air. Under controlled conditions, oxidation is an irreplaceable process in the ageing of wines, but when it occurs involuntarily it can seriously alter and damage wines.


Wine that has been seriously and irreversibly damaged by the action of oxygen. Such damage affects a wine's colour, aroma and behaviour when tasted.

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