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Biological process whereby a substance is transformed into one or more different substances as a consequence of the activity of certain microorganisms.


A term used for wines which produce a pseudothermal sensation in the mouth caused by the dehydrating effect of excessive alcohol content.

Fine wine

Wine produced from quality grape varieties and aged with great care. Quality wine aged for at least two years. (Not a legal classification.)


Wine-making practice designed to eliminate solid substances found either dissolved in the wine or, more frequently, in suspension. These substances affect, or can affect, the clarity and transparency of a wine, hence the importance of removing them.


The final flavours perceived just before the aftertaste in wine tasting.


A type of aged, fortified wine produced through biological ageing (see Crianza biológica) in the Denominations of Origin of Jerez, Montilla-Moriles and Condado de Huelva. (FINE). In wine-tasting, this term is usually applied to well-made wines with aromatic qualities that may not have great intensity. Synonym: elegante.


Wine which, due to lack of acidity, appears imbalanced and without contrast on the palate.


A group of naturally occurring yellow pigments that increase as white wine ages. They belong to the group of tannic substances or polyphenols.


Each one of the four sensations identified by the sense of taste. Sweet: identifiable on the tip of the tongue. Sour: identifiable on either side of the tongue. Salty: identifiable on the front part of the tongue. Bitter: identifiable at the very back of the tongue.


Wine with a wide variety of taste sensations.


Literally “flower” in English. A combination of yeasts responsible for the biological ageing of fino wines. These yeasts mainly belong to the four species of the Saccharomyces genus: S. Beticus, S. Cheriensis, S. Montuliensis and S. Rouxii. The flor, also known as velo (veil) develops spontaneously on the surface of the wine in the form of a floating greyish-white film. Mosto de flor is grape juice extracted without pressing the grapes.


Term used to describe some wines' primary aromas, which are reminiscent of floral perfume (rose, violet, etc.). Synonym: a flores.


The name given to certain wine maladies. See Micoderma.


Sweet wine with 16 to 18% alcohol made of Monastrell grapes from the Levante region.


Addition of alcohol to wine or must.


Very intense and persistent aroma.


Typical glass bottle used to serve small glasses (chatos) of wine in taverns in Spain.


Wine with the appropriate acidity for its type, which produces a sensation of freshness in the mouth. Characteristic of young, fine quality wines.

From bordeaux

See Barrica.


Delicate wine whose aroma is reminiscent of plants or of the variety of grape from which it was made. Wine with predominant primary aromas.


Incorrect Spanish expression that is very widely used to describe the fruity character of a wine. The correct expression is frutal.


Wine with plenty of flavour and adequate body, which satisfies the palate.

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