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An Andalusian country estate. Generally, haciendas were very extensive properties, covered in olive groves (which is possibly the most common native tree to Andalusia) and crowned by a palatial home, from which the production of olive oils was supervised.


A variety of olive named for the light colour of the back of its leaf (literally, white leaf), which gives the trees a silver tone when seen from afar. The fruit is large to very large in size, although low in fat yield. It is not overly stable, but the composition of its fatty acids produce a very dietetic oil. It is widely cultivated in Andalusia.


A typical soft drink of the Spanish Mediterranean coast, especially the region of Valencia, made with a form of tuber called chufa (tiger nut). Horchata is made by soaking dried tiger nuts in water, then blending them together, straining the liquid and sweetening it with sugar. Extremely refreshing as it is, horchata is a common feature at ice cream parlors and carts along the Mediterranean coast in the summer. The quality of tiger nuts from the Valencia region is ensured by a PDO status.


Meat pie typical in Salamanca (Castile-León) made with bread dough and filled with bits of pork loin, chorizo and hard-boiled egg. In other areas of Castile it is also made with ingredients such as pisto (a type of ratatouille), ham or game. The dough is made from wheat flour, beaten eggs and water mixed together until it is firm; later a bit of oil is added. The ingredients for the stuffing are fried separately and the eggs are boiled; then the dough is divided into two parts, which are rolled out to form a rounded, oval shape. The stuffing is spread over the dough base, which is then covered with the remaining dough and is baked in the oven for 30 minutes. Hornazo may be eaten both hot and cold. It is usually eaten at the end of Lent (the egg symbolises the resurrection of Christ), at the beginning of spring and an ideal time for picnics. Apparently the custom originated in the 16th century when the prostitutes were forced out of Salamanca during Lent and not allowed back until the Monday after Easter Sunday. Then the students went out to meet them on the outskirts of the city and celebrated their return with an open-air fiesta.

Huesos de santo

These are mall, elongated, cylindrical sweets made of marzipan and filled with yema (a mixture of sugar and egg yolk). The paste is made of sugar, ground almonds and grated lemon rind; there are those who also add potatoes or rice flour to make them lighter. The ingredients are boiled in water until the marzipan forms, then left to cool; the mixture is rolled out to a thickness of approximately one half centimetre (0.2 in) and cut into 6 cm (2.3 in) squares, which are then wrapped around a 2 cm (0.7 in) stick to allow them take on the proper shape (together with the colour of the paste, this shape makes them look like small bones). They are left to dry until the following day, when they are filled with the yema mixture. They may also be filled with preserves (plum, coconut, etc.) They are typical in Madrid, although they are also popular in other areas, and are usually eaten in November, coinciding with the All Saints’ Day. Recipes for these sweets may be found as early as 1611, in Martínez Montiño's book Arte de Cocina (The Art of Cooking).


Typical Galician constructions made of stone, rectangular in shape and supported by columns, they served as granaries or storehouses for agricultural products.  Although the word "hórreo" comes from Latin, this type of construction dates back to pre-Roman times, according to Latin writers such as Strabonius. Anthropologist Julio Caro Baroja attributes the origin of the hórreo to the Celts. They also appear extensively in Asturias, where they are known as paneras (bread bins). The Asturian constructions are larger -incorporating a gallery and balustrade- square in shape and are usually made from chestnut or oak.

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